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BUILDING OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

prambanan

PRAMBANAN

Prambanan, or the Temple of Loro Jonggrang, about 17 kilometers east of Yogyakarta on the border between Yogyakarta and Surakarta, in the province of Central Java. This is the most famous and also the most magnificent of Central Java's temple.
Dedicated to Shiva, it was built in the 9th century A.D. by rulers of the Sanjaya Dynasty. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Prambanan complex was built to hold the ashes of King Balitung and his consort. The main structure

in the complex is 47 meters tall. Facing towards the east, it has in its main chamber a huge statue of Shiva in his manifestation as Mahadewa, the supreme deity.

In another chamber is a statue of Loro Jonggrang, or Durga, Shiva's consort. The balustrades are covered with bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the Hindu epic, Ramayana. The main temple is flanked by smaller temples: that of Brahma to its south, and one dedicated to Wisnu to its north. In the same yard, opposite this row of main temples, is a statue of the bull nandi, originally standing inside a temple, also flanked by a temple on each side.

The Prambanan complex is believed to have once consisted of foursquare temple yards. The central yard contained eight temples; the three surrounding yards as many as 157 very small ones.

BOROBUDUR

Borobudur, the biggest and most magnificent monument to Mahayana Budhism of its kind ever built in Indonesia or in the world, is believed to have been built in the eight or ninth century A.D. by rulers of the southern Central Javanese Syailendra Dynasty probably Indra, or King Sanggramadananjaya or Samarottungga, who ruled from 812 to 832 A.D.

The shrine has nine square terraces and a circular top one, all of which except the highest are enclosed by walls, or massive, tall balustrade,

borobudur

covered with bas-reliefs. The whole massive edifice covers a hillock overlooking the serene southern Central Javanese plains, known as the Garden of Java.

Borobudur is 42 meters high, and each of the sides of the lowest terrace is 113 meters long. The 1.400 stones slabs that cover the balustrades are adorned with bas-reliefs illustrating life according to the tenets of Mahayana Budhism.

kalasan1

KALASAN

The village Kalasan about three kilometers to the west of the Prambanan complex, is the oldest in Yogya and Central Java, and is dedicated to the Buddhist goddess Tara. It is about six meters tall and has 52 stupas. The chamber is empty. The statue that it once must have contained has been either destroyed or lost.

DIENG

The name of Dieng is derived from the ancient Kawi word di and hyang, and means "the abode of the Gods". The temples stand in several clusters on an open field, and have

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been given the names of wayang heroes, such as Bima, Arjuna, Gatotkaca, Puntadewa, Semar, Nakula, Sadewa, Srikandi, Dwarawati, Ngangsiran,

and Aswatama. The are enclosed by walls of mountains, the tallest of which are Perahu, Sipandu, Pengamun, Gajahmungkur and Galang. A spring in the vicinity, called Tuk Bimakular, is the origins of the Serayu River, the four small lakes in the area are Dringo, Warna, Balekambang and Pengilon

bricks

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Cooperation between MINISTRY OF TOURISM, ART AND CULTURE, THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA and PT. ASANA WIRASTA SETIA, Jakarta

Supporting Institution: InCoDE, Yogyakarta

1999